Steel and it’s manufacturing process.

Quite often our readers will raise questions about steel and it’s manufacturing process. They would also inquire about the different grades of steel, shapes and sizes.Though there are different ways of categorizing steel, there are four major categories of steel.

  1. Carbon
  2. Alloy steel
  3. Stainless Steel
  4. Tool Steel or the power steel.

There are many other different grades of steel with varied properties. These properties are often categorized into chemical and physical. All steel consists of iron and carbon. it’s the quantity of carbon, and also the further alloys that confirm the properties of every grade. These grades of steel are used in the manufacture of different kinds of steel products such as galvanized stainless steel, steel pipes, galvanized steel and some of the galvanized steel coil manufactures too use these grades for the processing processes.

Other Classifications of steel include;

Types of Steel also can be classified by a range of various factors:

  • Micro structure: Ferric, Pearlie, Martensite, Etc.
  • Heat Treatment: toughened, Quenched & Tempered, Etc.
  • Composition: Carbon, Alloy, Stainless.
  • Form or shape: Bar, Rod, Tube, Pipe, Plate, Sheet, Structural, Etc.
  • The production method: Continuous forged, furnace, Etc.
  • Physical Strength (Per ASTM Standards).
  • Finishing methodology used: Cold Rolled, Hot Rolled, Cold Drawn (Cold Finished), Etc.
  • Quality Nomenclature: business Quality, Drawing Quality, Pressure Vessel Quality, Etc.
  • De-oxidation method (oxygen faraway from steel making process): Killed & Semi-Killed Steel, Etc.

Steel listing Systems

There are other systems of categorizing steel according to the chemical content and other technical compounds. We will be going through the classification according to carbon content and other major chemical components.
Plain steel is encompassed inside the one0xx series (containing 1.00% Mn maximum)
Re-Sulfured steel is encompassed inside the 11xx series
Re -Sulfured and Re-Phosphoric steel is encompassed inside the 12xx series
Non-Re-Sulfured High-Manganese (up-to one.65%) steel is encompassed inside the 15xx series.
The first digit on all different alloy steels (under the SAE-AISI system), are then classified as follows:

Carbon Steel

Carbon Steel are often sequestered into 3 main categories: Low steel (sometimes called gentle steel); Medium steel; and High carbon steel.

  • Low steel (Mild Steel): usually contain zero.04% to 0.30% carbon content. this is often one in every of the most important teams of steel. It covers a good diversity of shapes; from Flat Sheet to Structural Beam. counting on the specified properties required, different components ar value-added or inflated. For example: Drawing Quality (DQ) – The carbon level is unbroken low and atomic number 13 is value-added, and for steel the carbon level is higher and also the Mn content is inflated.
  • Medium Carbon Steel: usually contains a carbon vary of zero.31% to 0.60%, and a Manganese content starting from .060% to 1.65%. This product is stronger than low steel, and it’s tougher to make, weld and cut. Medium carbon steels are very often hardened through heat treatment.
  • High Carbon Steel: unremarkable called “carbon tool steel” it usually contains a carbon vary between zero.61% and 1.50%. High steel is incredibly troublesome to chop, bend and weld. Once heat treated it becomes extraordinarily laborious and brittle.

Stainless Steel Manufacturing process.

Stainless steel is thought for wonderful corrosion resistance. It has a wide array of applications such as in business, design, automotive manufacture, surgery and medicine.

How Is Stainless steel Made?

  • Raw materials for the manufacture of stainless steel.

Stainless steel is Associate with iron alloy with value-added components comparable to metallic element, nickel, silicon, manganese, gas and carbon. The properties of the ultimate alloy are often fine-tuned by neutering the amounts of the varied components.

  • The importance of metallic element in creating chrome steel

Chromium is important for the assembly of stainless steel; after all there’s no viable different. Metallic element could be corrosive, corrosion-resistant transition component that provides stainless steel its corrosion resistance. In general, the upper the metallic element content, the a lot of corrosion-resistant the steel.

The producing method of stainless Steel


The raw materials are fusible along in an electrical arc chamber. It will take eight to twelve hours of intense heat till the metal becomes liquefied.

Removal of carbon content

The next stage is to get rid of excess carbon. This is often done by processing the liquefied metal in  AOD (Argon chemical element Decarburization) device. The device reduces the carbon by injecting Associate in Nursing oxygen-argon mixture. At this stage, additional alloying components like nickel and atomic number 42 are often value-added to the AOD device.Alternatively a VOD (Vacuum chemical element Decarburization) device are often accustomed once a awfully low carbon content is needed.


Now the liquefied steel is forged into forms. These forms are often blooms (rectangular shapes), billets (round or sq. shapes), slabs, rods or tubes.

Hot rolling

Hot rolling happens at a temperature on top of the re crystallization temperature of the steel. The precise temperature depends on the specified chrome steel grade. The steel forms are heated and more responsible high rolls. Blooms and billets ar fashioned into bar and wire. Slabs are fashioned into plate, strip, and sheet.

Cold rolling

Cold rolling is employed wherever extraordinarily precise dimensions or a horny end are needed. The method happens below the re crystallization temperature of the steel. Cold rolling is administrated victimization small-diameter rolls and a series of supporting rolls. This method permits the assembly of wide sheets with improved surface finishes.


The tempering method causes scale to make on the steel. These scales are removed which  that involves bathing the steel in nitric-hydrofluoric acid. Electrocleaning is another methodology that uses an electrical current to get rid of the size.


The stainless steel will currently be move the specified size. Mechanical cutting is that the most typical methodology.Different ways embody flame cutting, that uses a flame-fired torch steam-powered with chemical element, propane, and iron powder, or Plasma Jet cutting that uses Associate in Nursing ionized gas column in conjunction with an electrical arc to chop the metal.


Surface end is very important for stainless steel merchandise, particularly in applications wherever appearances are necessary. Grinding wheels or abrasive belts are unremarkable accustomed grind or polish the steel. different ways embody buffing with material wheels with abrasive particles, sandblasting, and wet etching victimisation acid solutions. the sleek surface provides higher corrosion resistance.

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